ANSWER: The Pharisees and the Sadducees have their roots in one religion based on the Law of Moses.
The Pharisees believe in the resurrection of the dead (ie life after death, they believe everything written in the law, even the hope of the coming of the Messiah on earth) but the Sadducees do not believe in the resurrection, they believe that when a person dies, there is nothing after that, nor is there any angels or the spirit world or heaven.If you read Matthew 22: 24-34 you will see that the Lord Jesus answered the Pharisees about their poor view of the Scriptures and told them that God would not say He is the God of Abraham, and Isaiah and Jacob if those people are dead now.
Because God is not always the God of them but of the living ..so that Word proves that the resurrection exists. If you read Acts 23 again you will see the Apostle Paul uniting the two sects.
Acts 23: 6 “But when Paul perceived that the one part were Sadducees and the other Pharisees, he cried out in the council, Men and brothers, I am a Pharisee, a son of Pharisees. I am judged for the hope of the resurrection of the dead.
7 And when he had so said, there arose a dissension between the Pharisees and the Sadducees: and the multitude was divided.
8 For the Sadducees say that there is no resurrection, neither angel, nor spirit; but the Pharisees confess all of these.
9 There was a lot of noise. And some of the scribes of the Pharisees part stood up, and strove, saying, We find no evil in this man: and what if a spirit hath spoken to him, or an angel? but if a spirit or an angel has spoken, what is it?
10 And when there arose a great dissension, the chief captain, fearing lest Paul should have been pulled in pieces of them, commanded the soldiers to go down, and to take him by force from among them, and to bring him into the castle.
So with these texts you will get to understand where the difference between these people is GREEK: It is not a religion , but a people of the Greek world, now Greece. Greeks but originally are Jews, for example those people who wanted to see the Lord in the past were Jews but not native to Israel. we read:.
John 12:20 “Now there were certain Greeks among those that went up to worship at the feast.
21 The same came therefore to Philip, which was of Bethsaida of Galilee, and desired him, saying, Sir, we would see Jesus.
See? so also the people who were in Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost, (Acts 2) marveling at the great works of God, the Bible says they were the Parthians and the Medes and the Elamites, etc. all these were not Gentiles (i.e. non-Jews) no but were Jews who came from the nations mentioned there,
And the second kind: is the Greeks of Greek descent, the Gentiles.
For example, we can see that the woman mentioned here is Greek but has no Judaism in her:
Mark 7:24 “And from thence he arose, and went away into the borders of Tire and Sidon. And he entered into a house, and would have no man know it; but he could not be hidden.
25 But straightway a woman, whose little daughter had an unclean spirit, having heard of him, came and fell down at his feet.
26 And the woman was a Greek, a Syrophenician by nation; She begged him to cast the demon out of her daughter.
27 And he said unto her, Let the children first be filled; for it is not right to take the children’s bread and cast it to the dogs
28 And she answered and said unto him, Yes, Lord: yet the dogs under the table eat of the children’s crumbs.
29 And he said unto her, For this saying go thy way; the devil is gone out of thy daughter.
30 And she went away unto her house, and found the child laid upon the bed, and the demon gone out.
We also see other servants of God like Titus, a disciple of Paul (Galatians 2: 3). And Timothy (Acts 16: 1) all of these the Bible refers to as Greeks, not Jews.